AS TO THE ADMISSIBILITY OF


1. Application No. 16064/90                  5. Application No. 16069/90
   by Andreas and Giorghoulla VARNAVA           by Panicos and Chrysoula
   against Turkey                                  CHARALAMBOUS
                                                against Turkey

2. Application No. 16065/90                  6. Application No. 16070/90
   by Andreas and Loizos LOIZIDES               by Eleftherios and Christos
   against Turkey                                  THOMA
                                                against Turkey

3. Application No. 16066/90                  7. Application No. 16071/90
   by Philippos CONSTANTINOU and                by Savvas and Androula
      Demetris K. PEYIOTIS                         HADJIPANTELI
   against Turkey                               against Turkey


4. Application No. 16068/90                  8. Application No. 16072/90
   by Demetris THEOCHARIDES and                 by Savvas and Georghios
      Elli THEOCHARIDOU                            APOSTOLIDES
   against Turkey                               against Turkey

                        9. Application 16073/90
                           by Leontis DEMETRIOU SARMA and
                              Yiannoulla LEONTI SARMA
                           against Turkey



      The European Commission of Human Rights sitting in private on
14 April 1998, the following members being present:

           MM    S. TRECHSEL, President
                 J.-C. GEUS
                 G. JÖRUNDSSON
                 A.S. GÖZÜBÜYÜK
                 A. WEITZEL
                 J.-C. SOYER
                 H. DANELIUS
           Mrs   G.H. THUNE
           MM    F. MARTINEZ
                 C.L. ROZAKIS
           Mrs   J. LIDDY
           MM    L. LOUCAIDES
                 M.A. NOWICKI
                 I. CABRAL BARRETO
                 N. BRATZA
                 I. BÉKÉS
                 J. MUCHA
                 D. SVÁBY
                 G. RESS
                 A. PERENIC
                 C. BÎRSAN
                 P. LORENZEN
                 K. HERNDL
                 E. BIELIUNAS
                 E.A. ALKEMA
                 M. VILA AMIGÓ
           Mrs   M. HION
           MM    R. NICOLINI
                 A. ARABADJIEV

           Mr    M. de SALVIA, Secretary to the Commission

      Having regard to Article 25 of the Convention for the Protection
of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms;

      Having regard to the applications all introduced on
25 January 1990 and registered on 26 January 1990;

      Having regard to :

-     the reports provided for in Rule 47 of the Rules of Procedure of
      the Commission;

-     the Commission's decision of 1 July 1991 to communicate the
      applications;

-     the Commission's decision of 2 July 1991 to join the
      applications;

-     the observations submitted by the respondent Government on
      31 October 1991 and the observations in reply submitted by the
      applicants on 8 January 1992;

-     the respondent Government's further observations of 3 April 1992;

-     the Commission's decision of 13 October 1992 to request the
      parties to submit further observations;

-     the observations submitted further to this request by the
      applicants on 1 December 1992 and 3 December 1992 and by the
      respondent Government on 3 December 1992;

-     the Commission's decision of 23 January 1997 to request the
      respondent Government to submit supplementary observations in the
      light of the Court's Loizidou v. Turkey judgment of
      18 December 1996;

-     the supplementary observations submitted by the respondent
      Government on 2 July 1997 and the observations in reply submitted
      by the applicants on 6 October 1997;

      Having deliberated;

      Decides as follows:

THE FACTS

A.    The particular circumstances of the cases

      The Government have made no comments on the applicants'
submissions as to the facts. The latter may be summarised as follows.

1.    Application No. 16064/90

      The first applicant, an ironmonger, was born in 1947; he has been
considered missing since 1974, having been taken into captivity by the
Turkish Army during their military action in Cyprus in 1974. His wife,
the second applicant, was born in 1949 and is residing in Lymbia.

      The applicants are represented by Mr. Achilleas Demetriades, a
lawyer practising in Nicosia, under an authority signed by the second
applicant in her own name and on behalf of the first applicant.

      In July 1974 the first applicant, responding to the declared
general mobilisation, enlisted as a reservist in the 305 Reservists
Battalion which had its headquarters in Dhali village. He continued his
service at the outposts of Lymbia until 8-9 August 1974. On
8-9 August 1974 all the reserve soldiers of the 305 Reservists
Battalion, among them the applicant, were brought to the area of
Mia Milia and undertook the manning of Cypriot outposts along the front
line with the Turkish military forces which extended between Mia Milia
and Koutsovendis.

      On the morning of 14 August 1974, Turkish military forces,
supported by tanks and having air cover, launched an attack against the
Cypriot area where the applicant and his battalion were serving, in
order to capture the area from them. The Cypriot area line of defence
was broken through and the Turkish military forces began advancing
towards the area of Mia Milia and as a result the Cypriot forces began
retreating. During the retreat that followed, the Cypriot forces
dispersed in all directions. After a while the area around was captured
by the Turkish military forces and the applicant was cut off in it.
As a result the trace of the applicant was lost and he is today still
considered to be missing.

      Mr. Christakis Ioannou of Pano Dhikomo and now of Stavros Refugee
Camp Strovolos, who had been a prisoner of the Turkish Military Forces
and/or Turkish authorities and is now free, stated that at Adana prison
in Turkey, where he had been taken on 31 August 1974 and held, there
were another 40 persons in the same room for 3-4 days. Among them was
the applicant. After the said period they were split up and ever since
then he has not seen the applicant again.

2.    Application No. 16065/90

      The first applicant, a student, was born in 1954; he has been
considered missing since 1974, having been taken into captivity by the
Turkish Army during their military action in Cyprus in 1974. His
father, the second applicant, was born in 1907 and is residing at
Nicosia.

      The applicants are represented by Dr. Kypros Chrysostomides, a
lawyer practising in Nicosia, under an authority signed by the second
applicant in his own name and on behalf of the first applicant.

      In July 1974 the first applicant was serving as a Second
Lieutenant in the 1st Company of the 256 Infantry Battalion stationed
at Xeros, which took part in various operations against the Turkish
forces. On about 30 July 1974 the battalion moved up to the Lapithos
area in order to support the Greek Cypriot forces there. The soldiers
were split up into various groups and the applicant was in charge of
one of these. The applicant's group, consisting of ten men in all,
including Stelios Christofi Onoufriou and Xenophon Christoforou (both
now missing), as well as Nakis Nicolaou and Petros A. Hadjiyianni, was
ordered to take up positions on the Lapithos heights. During their stay
at Lapithos the Greek Cypriot forces were continuously attacked by the
Turkish forces from all sides. The Greek Cypriot forces remained at
their posts defending them until 5 August 1974.

      On 5 August 1974 Turkish forces launched a strong attack from all
sides against the Greek Cypriot forces' positions while other Turkish
troops managed to encircle Lapithos. Because of Turkish superiority in
manpower and armour the Greek Cypriot forces were ordered to retreat
towards the centre of the village where the Company base was. The
applicant arrived with his comrades at the centre of the village and
was informed by the inhabitants that Lapithos was surrounded by Turkish
troops. Then they hid their weapons in an orchard and subsequently put
on civilian clothes which they found in various houses. In the
afternoon of 5 August 1974 the applicant with some comrades attempted
to break through the Turkish lines and arrive at the Cypriot Government
controlled areas. This attempt was unsuccessful and with the exception
of Nakis Nicolaou they all returned to Lapithos again where they spent
the night. At about 9.00 hours on 6 August 1974 Turkish troops entered
Lapithos and started extensive searches from house to house. The
applicant and all his comrades were warned by the inhabitants of the
village about the searches and they dispersed in order to avoid
capture. Since then none of the members of the group has seen the
applicant again.

      Nicos Th. Tampas of the 256 Infantry Battalion and leader of the
first group which was manning the Lapithos heights at about
5 August 1974 in a statement mentioned that at approximately 21.00
hours on 6 August 1974, while he was walking in Lapithos looking for
his comrades, he entered a warehouse. In it he found the applicant
looking after Georghios Allayiotis who was wounded in the head. After
talking for a little while with the applicant he went away leaving him
and Georghios Allayiotis there. That was the last time that he saw the
applicant. He was arrested by the Turks on 9 August 1974 while he was
in Lapithos. He was detained in various prisons in Cyprus and Turkey
and was released on 22 October 1974.

      Christodoulos Panyi of Vatyli, now of Strovolos, in his statement
declared that while he was a prisoner in the Adana prison he saw and
recognised the applicant whom he had known earlier.

3.    Application No. 16066/90

      The first applicant, a student, was born in 1954; he has been
considered missing since 1974, having been taken into captivity by the
Turkish Army during their military action in Cyprus in 1974. His
father, the second applicant, was born in 1929 and is residing at
Nicosia.

      The applicants are represented by Dr. Kypros Chrysostomides, a
lawyer practising in Nicosia, under an authority signed by the second
applicant in his own name and on behalf of the first applicant.

      In July 1973 the first applicant enlisted with the National Guard
in order to do his national service. He was posted with the 70
Engineers Battalion which was stationed at the site of the former
British Military Hospital (B.M.H.) in Nicosia. On 5 August 1974, a
section of the battalion consisting of 48 men, including the applicant,
was sent to Lapithos on a specific mission in the Lapithos and Karavas
area (Kyrenia district). The mission began at about noon and finished
at about 18.00 hours on the same day. After receiving instructions from
the group leader the men spent the night at Lapithos and intended to
complete the mission the following morning.

      At about 04.30 hours on 6 August 1974, the Turkish Army launched
a full-scale attack from all sides in the Karavas and Lapithos area.
The applicant's group leader ordered his men to split up into three
groups and to withdraw towards Vasilia (also Kyrenia district) where
they would all meet. The soldiers split up into three groups under the
respective command of the platoon leaders. The applicant was in one of
the groups which intended to withdraw following a route along the
coast.

      The men first reached the main Nicosia-Kyrenia road near the
"Airkotissa" restaurant. While they were having a short rest, they
heard shouting and the group leader sent the applicant and another
soldier to investigate. As they had not returned after about 15 minutes
the remainder of the group left for Panagra (also in the Kyrenia
district). On their way there, they were ambushed by Turkish soldiers
and amidst the fighting and confusion that followed, the remaining
group dispersed. Three soldiers from this group, Petros Constantinou
(of Morphou, now of Moniatis, Limassol), Panayiotis Alexandrou (of Pera
Chorio Nisou, Nicosia) and Manolis Manoli (of Lapithos, now of Engomi,
Nicosia), managed to reach their destination. Until that time when the
group dispersed, none of its members including the applicant, had been
killed, injured or captured by the Turks.

      Costas A. Sophocleous, of Nicosia, stated that, when he was a
prisoner in Turkey from 30 July until 28 October 1974, he met the
applicant. They were together in the same prison in Turkey and were
subsequently transferred to Cyprus whereupon the said Costas A.
Sophocleous was released but not the applicant.

      Alexandros Papamichael, of Limassol, who was a prisoner in Adana,
Turkey, stated that he recognised the first applicant from a photograph
that was shown him by the second applicant and he had been with him in
the same prison.

      Finally, the second applicant mentioned in a signed statement
that he identified his missing son in a photograph published in
"Athinaiki", a Greek newspaper, on 28 September 1974. In this
photograph Greek Cypriot prisoners were shown on a boat en route to
Turkey.

4.    Application No. 16068/90

      The first applicant, a photographer, was born in 1953; he has
been considered missing since 1974, having been taken into captivity
by the Turkish Army during their military action in Cyprus in 1974. His
mother, the second applicant, was born in 1914 and is residing at
Nicosia.

      The applicants are represented by Mr. Achilleas Demetriades, a
lawyer practising in Nicosia, under an authority signed by the second
applicant in her own name and on behalf of the first applicant.

      On 20 July 1974 the first applicant enlisted as a reservist in
Nicosia. He was posted in the 1st Company of the 301 Infantry Battalion
commanded by Mr. Costas Papacostas. On 21 July he telephoned his mother
and told her that he was well and that he was going to be moved to the
Kyrenia district. Indeed the whole battalion was ordered to move on the
following day to the area of Ayios Ermolaos. The 1st Company took up
defensive positions at a height called "Kalambaki", near the Turkish
Cypriot village of Pileri.

      At about 04.30 hours on 26 July 1974 the 1st Company came under
attack from the Turkish Cypriot villages of Krini-Pileri. The Turkish
military forces that carried out the attack consisted of a paratroops
battalion, twenty tanks, as well as high-angle guns. They succeeded in
breaking through the Greek Cypriot lines and infiltrated the right
flank of the 1st Company in order to encircle it and enclave its men.
The commander ordered the Company to regroup and form platoons at the
Greek Cypriot village of Sysklepos. There they were ordered by their
battalion to regroup again at Kontemenos where they arrived at about
15.00 hours. After a roll-call they found out that six soldiers of the
1st Company were absent, including the applicant. The area in which the
1st Company had been initially stationed was captured by the Turkish
military forces.

      Mr. Nicos Nicolaou of Strovolos, who has been a prisoner at Adana
prison (Turkey) in September 1974, stated that one day, when the
prisoners were in the yard, a Turk was calling their names. Among other
names, he heard the name of the applicant. He saw the applicant whom
he happened to know previously. As the applicant was going back to his
cell Mr. Nicolaou noticed that he was lame in one leg. On
11 September 1974 Mr. Nicolaou was taken to Antiyiama prison (Turkey)
and since then he has not seen the applicant again. All trace of the
applicant has been lost and he is considered missing till today.

5.    Application No. 16069/90

      The first applicant, a student, was born in 1955; he has been
considered missing since 1974, having been taken into captivity by the
Turkish Army during their military action in Cyprus in 1974. His
mother, the second applicant, was born in 1935 and is residing at
Limassol.

      The applicants are represented by Dr. Kypros Chrysostomides, a
lawyer practising in Nicosia, under an authority signed by the second
applicant in her own name and on behalf of the first applicant.

      In 1972 the first applicant enlisted in the National Guard to do
his military service. He was subsequently promoted to Sergeant.

      On 14 July 1974 the applicant visited his relations at Polemidhia
and told them that he would be demobilised on 20 July. He returned to
his unit on the same day. On 19 July 1974 he telephoned his father and
told him that he would not be released after all because of the Coup
that had taken place in the meantime. On 22 July 1974 the applicant's
father was informed by Nicos Hadjicosti, a Limassol factory owner, that
he had seen his son at the company's headquarters at Synchari and that
he was well. On 23 July 1974 the father of the applicant was informed
by Andreas Komodromos that the applicant had left Synchari with the men
of the Headquarters Company and had gone to Aglandjia.

      On 24 July 1974 Nikiforos Kominis with 17 soldiers, including the
applicant and Efthymios Hadjipetrou, set out from Aglandjia in two
vehicles to reconnoitre the ground of the Koutsoventis-Vounos area.
Among them were Phaedros Roussi and Yiannis Melissis. After Kominis had
marked the Turkish positions on paper, he went at about 12.00 hours to
the headquarters of one of the Commando Units in order to relay by
telephone the results of the reconnaissance mission. After twenty
minutes three buses were seen driving on a street from the direction
of Vounos village. At about the same time a Greek officer by the name
of Votas accompanied by three other soldiers went near the men of the
reconnaissance patrol. The officer ordered three or four soldiers to
come down on the street and search the buses. The buses were full of
Turkish soldiers who started firing at the Greek Cypriot men as soon
as they became aware of their nationality. The applicant was wounded
in the right hand and on the left side of his ribs. Mr. Andreas
Komodromos cleaned his wounds with water, loaded his gun and told him
to go back, which he did. Since then the applicant has not been seen
again.

      According to the statement of Yiannis Melissis, who had been a
prisoner of the Turks at Adana and Amasia in September 1974, he
happened to meet the applicant during his captivity. They both stayed
with others in Cell No. 9 until 18 September. They were chatting
together every day and became friends. On 18 September Yiannis Melissis
was brought back to Cyprus and was released on 21 September 1974. The
applicant had given him a letter to the applicant's father which he
forgot in his pocket in the clothes that he changed at the Hotel and
Catering School in Nicosia. All those clothes belonging to the
prisoners were burned.

      Besides, the second applicant in her statement mentioned that she
had recognised her son in a photograph that was published in the Greek
newspaper "Athinaiki" on 28 September 1974. The photograph shows
Cypriot prisoners transported to Turkey on a Turkish destroyer in
July 1974.

6.    Application No. 16070/90

      The first applicant, a car mechanic, was born in 1951; he has
been considered missing since 1974, having been taken into captivity
by the Turkish Army during their military action in Cyprus in 1974. His
father, the second applicant, was born in 1921 and is residing at
Strovolos.

      The applicants are represented by Mr. Achilleas Demetriades, a
lawyer practising in Nicosia, under an authority signed by the second
applicant in his own name and on behalf of the first applicant.

      In July 1974, in response to the general mobilisation, the first
applicant enlisted as a reserve Sergeant in the Headquarters Company
of the 251 Infantry Battalion stationed at Glykiotissa, Kyrenia, with
Captain Michael Polycarpos in charge.

      On the morning of 20 July 1974 Turkish military forces, supported
by naval units and having air cover, succeeded in landing with their
armour. All the men of the Headquarters Company, including the
applicant, were trying during the whole of the day to prevent the
Turkish landing which was taking place in the area of "Pikro Nero",
Kyrenia. At around 12.00 hours on 21 July the Turkish military forces
which had landed, supported by tanks and having air cover, attacked the
Cypriot forces that were defending the area. Owing to the superiority
of the Turkish military forces in men as well as in weapons the
251 Infantry Battalion was ordered to retreat towards Trimithi village.
The applicant was present during the regrouping of the battalion. Two
hours after the regrouping the commander of the battalion (who is
missing with 40-50 other soldiers, including the applicant serving as
the commander's driver) left Trimithi village and ended up in a ravine
between the villages of Ayios Georghios and Templos and took up battle
positions. A number of commandos of the 33rd Battalion arrived in the
same ravine. At around 15.00 hours on 22 July 1974, Turkish military
forces surrounded the Cypriot forces in the ravine (between Ayios
Georghios and Templos) and opened fire against them with all their
guns. Then the commander ordered a counter-attack intending to break
through the Turkish military forces' lines and at the same time to
retreat towards Kyrenia. During the counter-attack and the retreat the
applicant's trace was lost.

      On 4 September 1974 the "Special News Bulletin" - a daily issue
of the Turkish Cypriot administration - published a photograph of Greek
Cypriot prisoners-of-war under the caption "Greek-Cypriot
prisoners-of-war having their lunch. Yesterday they were visited by a
representative of the Turkish Red Crescent. He toured all the
prisoners-of-war camps in the area of the island under the Turkish
control, in order to ascertain the needs of the prisoners." In that
photograph four of the prisoners were identified. Among them was the
first applicant who was identified by the second applicant.

      A former prisoner, Mr. Efstathios Selefcou, of Elio, now at
Eylenja, in a signed statement to the Cypriot Police said that during
his transportation from Cyprus to Turkey he saw and talked to the first
applicant whom he knew very well since they had been together at
secondary school.

      All above-mentioned prisoners were taken to Adana prison and
since that time the applicant has been missing.

7.    Application No. 16071/90

       The first applicant, a bank employee, was born in 1938 and lived
at Yialousa; he has been considered missing since 1974, having been
taken into captivity by the Turkish Army during their military action
in Cyprus in 1974. His wife, the second applicant, was born in 1938 and
is residing at Nicosia.

      The applicants are represented by Dr. Kypros Chrysostomides, a
lawyer practising in Nicosia, under an authority signed by the second
applicant in her own name and on behalf of the first applicant.

      On 18 August 1974 about three or four saloon cars as well as a
bus and two tanks, all full of Turkish and Turkish Cypriot soldiers
turned up at Yialousa and stopped near the police station, along the
main road. The soldiers got out of their vehicles and ordered all those
who were there to gather at the nearby coffee-house of Christos
Malakounas. About 35 persons gathered there.  Subsequently, a Turkish
officer told them that from that time they would be under Turkish
administration and ordered them to make a census of the Greek Cypriot
inhabitants of the village starting from the age of 7 to 70 and that
he would be back on the following day to collect the lists. On the
following day, the same civilian and military vehicles (tanks) returned
and were parked near the police station. A number of Turks got off,
marched to Malakounas coffee-house and asked for the lists. Another
group of Turkish soldiers were carrying out a house-to-house search.
They imposed a curfew and, having taken the lists, they took with them
for questioning nine persons, including the first applicant. They put
them on a bus and drove them outside the village in the direction of
Famagusta. The said Greek Cypriots are still missing.

      On the same day, the village of Yialousa was visited by United
Nations men to whom the arrest of the nine Greek Cypriots was reported
by their co-villagers.

      According to a Red Cross document the applicant, as well as the
other eight men from Yialousa, were arrested by Turkish Cypriots from
Ayios Andronikos. Representatives of the International Red Cross in
Cyprus visited Pavlides Garage in the Turkish-occupied sector of
Nicosia and on 28 August 1974 recorded the names of 20 Greek Cypriots
held there, including the nine persons from Yialousa. Costas M. Kaniou,
Sofronios Mantis, Ioannis D. Constantis also saw the said detainees at
the Pavlides Garage, during the same period that they were detained
there; they were released later.

      On 27 August 1974 a group of Turkish Cypriot civilians came to
Yialousa looking for Pentelis Pantelides, Loizos Pallaris,
Michael Sergides and Christakis Panayides. Having found them, they led
them to the Savings Bank in order to search and seal the building. They
all entered the building. After having emptied two safes they ordered
that the third one should be opened, but they were told that the keys
were with the applicant. Subsequently they left, after having shut and
sealed the outside door. After 10-12 days the same group looked for the
same persons and went again to the bank building. They had the two keys
for the safe which the applicant always carried with him.
Loizos Pallaris opened the safe. The keys were in a leather case which
the applicant had, but his personal keys were not included. The Turkish
Cypriots took the contents of the safe, sealed the gate and left.

8.    Application No. 16072/90

      The first applicant, a moulder, was born in 1955; he has been
considered missing since 1974, having been taken into captivity by the
Turkish Army during their military action in Cyprus in 1974. His
father, the second applicant, was born in 1928 and is residing at
Strovolos.

      The applicants are represented by Mr. Achilleas Demetriades, a
lawyer practising in Nicosia, under an authority signed by the second
applicant in his own name and on behalf of the first applicant.

      In 1974 the first applicant was doing his national service in the
70 Engineers Battalion stationed at the site of the former British
Military Hospital (B.M.H.) in Nicosia. On 5 August 1974 a section of
the battalion consisting of 48 men, including the applicant, was sent
to Lapithos on a specific mission in the Karavas and Lapithos area. The
mission began at about noon and was completed at about 18.00 hours the
same day. After receiving instructions from the section leader,
Efstratios Katsoulotou, the men spent the night at Lapithos and
intended to complete their mission the following morning. At about
04.30 hours on 6 August 1974 the Turkish military forces launched a
full-scale attack from all sides in the area of Karavas and Lapithos.
The Commander of the Engineers ordered his men to split up into three
groups, withdraw towards Vasilia and meet there. The three groups set
off intending to reach the prearranged point. On their way they were
ambushed by the Turkish military forces. Because of the Turkish
military forces' fire and the confusion that followed all the Engineers
dispersed. Up to the time of the dispersion no member of the group had
been killed, injured or captured by the Turkish military forces, and
neither was the applicant.

      Later on Mr. Costas Themistocleous of Omorphita, now of Nicosia,
who was taken as a prisoner to Adana prison in Turkey, saw the
applicant there on or about 17 October 1974, while he was about to
return to Cyprus. They did not speak to each other but waved their
hands. Mr. Themistocleous recognised the applicant since he knew him
ever since they were children.

9.    Application No. 16073/90

      The first applicant, a worker, was born in 1947; he has been
considered missing since 1974, having been taken into captivity by the
Turkish Army during their military action in Cyprus in 1974. His wife,
the second applicant, was born in 1949 and is residing at Limassol.

      The applicants are represented by Mr. Achilleas Demetriades, a
lawyer practising in Nicosia, under an authority signed by the second
applicant in her own name and on behalf of the first applicant.

      On 20 July 1974, following the general mobilisation, the first
applicant enlisted as a reservist in the 399 Infantry Battalion
stationed at Bogazi, Famagusta. He was put in the Support Company of
the Battalion (B.C.S.C.). On 20 July the battalion captured the Turkish
Cypriot village of Chatos. On 22 July the battalion moved to the Mia
Milia area to reinforce the Greek Cypriot forces there and to man the
Greek Cypriot outposts on the front line.

      On the morning of 14 August 1974 Turkish military forces,
supported by tanks and having air cover, launched a heavy attack
against the Greek Cypriot forces in the area, where the applicant was
with his battalion, intending to occupy the area. Owing to the
superiority of the Turkish military forces the Greek Cypriot defence
line was broken, the Turkish military forces began to advance towards
the Mia Milia area, and the Greek Cypriot forces began to retreat. The
area was, in a short while, occupied by the Turkish military forces and
the applicant was enclaved in it. His trace was lost.

      The ex-prisoner of war, Mr. Costas Mena of Palaekythro, now at
Koracou, stated that during his detention at Antiyama, Turkey, he saw
the applicant who was detained in cell-block No. 9. On 18 October 1974
all the prisoners at Antiyama were taken from Antiyama to Adana. There
they were all lined up in four rows. A Turkish military officer walked
in front of the line and picked out some of the prisoners, who were
taken away from the line. From the first row the applicant was picked
out and taken away. Since then Mr. Mena has not seen the applicant ever
again and he has been missing until today.

B.    Terms of Reference and Rules of Procedure of the Committee on
      Missing Persons in Cyprus

i     Terms of Reference

      1.   A committee on missing persons in Cyprus will be formed
      immediately consisting of three members. The Greek Cypriot and
      Turkish Cypriot sides will each appoint one humanitarian person
      to the committee. The third member will be an official selected
      by the ICRC for that purpose with the agreement of both sides and
      appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

      2.   The decisions of the committee will be taken by consensus
      to the extent possible. In the event of disagreement between the
      representatives of the two sides, the third member shall consult
      both of them with a view to bringing their views together and
      reaching a consensus.

      3.   Each of the committee members can be assisted by up to two
      staff assistants as necessary. No other persons will participate
      in the deliberations or investigative work of the committee. No
      person directly involved with the issue of missing persons may
      be appointed as staff assistant. The committee will not request
      outside expert assistance.

      4.   The committee will not have a chairman, but the meetings
      will be directed by the members on a rotating basis for a period
      of one month's duration --- the first director will be the
      official of the ICRC, to be followed by the Turkish Cypriot
      member or the Greek Cypriot member, to be determined at the first
      meeting by lot.

      5.   The three members of the committee will meet immediately
      and will continue in regularly scheduled sessions for as long as
      required.

      6.   All parties concerned shall co-operate with the committee
      to ensure access throughout the island for the investigative work
      of the committee.

      7.   The committee shall look only into cases of persons
      reported missing in the intercommunal fightings as well as in the
      events of July 1974 and afterwards.

      8.   The order of investigation of cases will be decided by the
      committee, but it is agreed that the first investigative case
      will be put forward by the Turkish Cypriot member of the
      committee. This will be followed by a case put forward by the
      Greek Cypriot member. The investigations will rotate to the
      extent possible until all cases have been examined.

      9.   The committee's entire proceedings and findings will be
      strictly confidential. Any violation of this rule would place the
      work of the committee in jeopardy.

      10.  The committee will determine whether to issue public
      statements or reports without prejudice to paragraph 9.

      11.  The committee will not attempt to attribute responsibility
      for the deaths of any missing persons or make findings as to the
      cause of such deaths.

      12.  No disinterment will take place under the aegis of this
      committee. The committee may refer requests for disinterment to
      the ICRC for processing under its customary procedures.

      13.  The committee will use its best efforts to draw up
      comprehensive lists of missing persons of both communities,
      specifying as appropriate whether they are alive or dead, and in
      the latter case approximate time of the deaths.

ii    Rules of Procedure

      I.   Meetings

      a)   Closed meetings

           The Committee on Missing Persons can, if members so decide,
           sit in camera, i.e. without attendants and/or secretarial
           staff.

      b)   Reports

           A summary report will be established for every meeting.
           Decisions taken will be dictated to the committee's
           secretary by the member directing the meeting.

      II.  Relations with press and media

      a)   Press releases

           Insofar as possible, a press release will be issued at the
           close of a meeting or series of meetings. Progress reports
           will also be published occasionally.

      b)   Members' individual declarations

           The members of the Committee are bound by paragraph 9 of
           the Terms of Reference, but if a member wishes to make an
           additional statement to the press or media, he may do so,
           provided he avoids any criticism or contradiction of the
           joint statement. Any kind of propaganda should be avoided.

      III. Relations with families

      a)   Communications from the families

           Written communications addressed to the Committee by the
           families of missing persons will be passed on to the
           appropriate member of the Committee with a note of
           explanation to the family.

      b)   Final information as to the fate of a particular missing
           person will be referred to the member of the Committee
           concerned with the case and the family will be informed
           through that member.

      c)   Interim information

           No interim information will be passed on by the Committee
           to the family of a missing person during the discussion of
           a particular case. The same rule will apply to any member
           of the Committee and to any person attending the meeting.

      IV.  Approximate number of cases and their manner of
           presentation

      a)   Approximate number

           For working purposes, the following number of cases may be
           considered: Greek Cypriot: approximately 1600; Turkish
           Cypriot: approximately 800.

      b)   Presentation of cases

           At the very least, the elements enumerated in the attached
           document should be furnished.

      c)   Division of cases

           Following the presentation of the first two cases, further
           cases will be examined in groups of cases, the size of
           which will be determined by the Committee, after which a
           recess will be taken to allow time to carry out
           investigations.

      V.   Investigations

      1.   Guiding principles

           1.    Investigations will be conducted in the sole interest
           of the families concerned and must therefore convince them.

           2.    Every possible means will be used to trace the fate of
           the missing persons.

      2.   Practical measures

           1.    Individual or collective cases will be presented to
           the CMP with all possible information. The CMP will refer
           each case to the side on whose territory the missing person
           disappeared; this side will undertake a complete research
           and present to the CMP a written report. It is the duty of
           the CMP members appointed by each side, or their
           assistants, to follow the enquiries undertaken on the
           territory of their side; the third member and/or his
           assistants will be fully admitted to participate in the
           enquiries.

           2.    The CMP will make case decisions on the basis of the
           elements furnished by both sides and by the Central Tracing
           Agency of the ICRC: presumed alive, dead, disappeared
           without visible or other traceable signs.

           3.    If the CMP is unable to reach a conclusion on the
           basis of the information presented, a supplementary
           investigation will be undertaken at the request of a CMP
           member. The third CMP member and/or his assistants will
           participate in each supplementary investigation, or, as the
           case may be, investigators recruited by the CMP with the
           agreement of both sides.

COMPLAINTS

      The applicants allege violations of Articles 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10,
12, 13 and 14 of the Convention.

      In the alternative it is alleged that, in case the first
applicants have died during their detention and while in the custody
of the Turkish military and/or other authorities, Turkey's failure to
protect their lives constitutes a violation of Article 2 of the
Convention.

PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE COMMISSION

      The applications were introduced on 25 January 1990 and
registered on 26 January 1990.

      On 1 July 1991 the Commission decided to communicate the
applications to the respondent Government and invite them to submit
written observations on the admissibility and merits of the
applications. On 2 July 1991 the Commission decided to join the
applications.

      The Government's written observations were submitted on
31 October 1991. The applicants replied on 8 January 1992. On
3 April 1992 the Government submitted further observations.

      On 13 October 1992 the Commission decided to request the parties
to submit further observations.

      The applicants submitted such observations on 1 December 1992 and
3 December 1992 and the Government on 3 December 1992.

      On 25 January 1994 the Commission decided to adjourn its further
examination of the applications pending the determination of certain
issues by the Court in the context of the Loizidou v. Turkey case. This
decision was confirmed on 13 April 1995.

      On 23 January 1997 the Commission decided to request the
respondent Government to submit supplementary observations in the light
of the Court's Loizidou v. Turkey judgment of 18 December 1996.

      On 2 April 1997 the respondent Government requested the
Commission to adjourn the examination of the applications until
completion by the Court of its consideration of the issue under
Article 50 of the Convention in the Loizidou v. Turkey case. On
18 April 1997 the Commission decided not to accede to the respondent
Government' s request and fixed a new time-limit for the submission of
their supplementary observations.

      The Government's supplementary observations were submitted on
2 July 1997, after an extension of the second time-limit fixed for that
purpose. The applicants replied on 6 October 1997.

THE LAW

1.    The applications have been brought on behalf of persons of Greek-
Cypriot origin which are considered missing since 1974, when they were
allegedly taken in captivity by the Turkish army during its military
action in Cyprus, and by members of their families. They concern the
fate of these persons and the consequences for their families. The
applicants invoke Articles 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13 and 14
(Art. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14) of the Convention.

2.    The Government submit that the applications relate to
instantaneous acts and events which occurred before 28 January 1987,
the date of deposit of Turkey's declaration recognising the right of
individual petition under Article 25 (Art. 25) of the Convention.
However, according to that declaration, the right to individual
petition only extends to "allegations made in respect of facts,
including judgments which are based on such facts, which have occurred
subsequent to the date of deposit".

      The applicants argue that the alleged violations are of a
continuing nature, since they concern persons which are presumed to be
in a state of unlawful detention. They also submit that, assuming that
these persons are dead, the failure of the respondent Government to
account for their fate to their families gives rise to a continuing
situation.

      The Commission, having noted both parties' positions, considers
that this is an issue which can only be determined at the merits stage
of the proceedings. As a result, the Commission decides to reserve the
final determination of the question of whether the applications relate
to facts covered by the temporal limitation in the Turkish declaration
under Article 25 (Art. 25) of the Convention for a later stage in the
proceedings. It follows that the applications cannot be declared
inadmissible under Article 27 para. 2 (Art. 27-2) on the ground that
they are incompatible ratione temporis with the provisions of the
Convention.

3.    The Government also submit that the applications concern a matter
which has already been examined by the Commission in the context of
applications Nos. 6780/74, 6950/75 and 8007/77 Cyprus v. Turkey (Comm.
Reports, 10.7.76, unpublished, and 4.10.83, D.R. 72, p. 5) and which
is part of another application which has been declared admissible
(No. 25781/94 Cyprus v. Turkey, Dec. 28.6.96, D.R. 86-A, p. 104). They
argue in this connection that Article 27 para. 1 (b) (Art. 27-1-b) of
the Convention puts the emphasis on the identity of the matter in
question and not on the identity of the parties to the proceedings
before the Commission. The eight applicants were all mentioned by the
applicant Government in application No. 8007/77. Although new
complaints have now been added, the facts remain the same. The present
applications cannot be used to reverse the res judicata effect of the
Committee of Ministers' Resolution DH (92) 12 of 2 April 1992 in the
third inter-State case.

      The Government further argue that the applications concern a
matter which has already been submitted to another procedure of
international investigation or settlement. They refer in this
connection to the Committee on Missing Persons which was established
in 1981. They recall the agreement on the terms of reference for the
establishment of this Committee (1981), the agreement on the rules of
procedure (1984) and on the guidelines for investigations (1995) and
the criteria of the UN Secretary General which have been accepted by
both the Greek Cypriot and the Turkish Cypriot side. The initial
procedural difficulties have now been overcome and the Greek Cypriot
side submitted all their cases by December 1995, the number of these
cases having been reduced to 1493. As a result, the Government submit
that there exists an adequate forum to examine the question of missing
persons.

      In the light of all the above, the Government argue that the
Commission is  precluded under Article 27 para. 1 (b) (Art. 27-1-b) of
the Convention from declaring the applications admissible.

      The applicants point out that they complain of continuing
violations. As a result and by definition, their applications cannot
be the same as the inter-State applications mentioned by the
Government. The fourth inter-State case also relates to a different
period of time and, in any event, the Commission has not yet carried
out an examination of its merits. The applicants further submit that
there is no identity of parties, cause and object between the inter-
State cases and the present applications. In any event, they argue that
the present applications extend to complaints which have never been
raised before. Finally, the applicants argue that the resolution of the
Committee of Ministers in the third inter-State case is incapable of
producing any res judicata effect.

      The applicants further submit that Article 27 para. 1 (b)
(Art. 27-1-b) of the Convention refers to a petition submitted by the
applicant to another procedure of international investigation or
settlement. This is not the case with the Committee on Missing Persons
where the procedure is initiated by a third party acting in a
humanitarian fashion. They also argue that Turkey is not a party to the
procedure and that the Committee cannot attribute responsibility for
the deaths of any missing persons or make findings as to the cause of
such deaths. Neither is the Committee competent to pronounce on the
legal issues involved in their applications or to carry out an
investigation in Turkey or to order an exhumation.

      The Commission recalls that under Article 27 para. 1 (b)
(Art. 27-1-b) of the Convention it shall not deal with any petition
submitted under Article 25 (Art. 25) which "is substantially the same
as a matter which has already been examined by the Commission or has
already been submitted to another procedure of international
investigation or settlement and if it contains no relevant new
information."

      However, the Commission considers that it is not necessary to
pronounce on the general question, which has been left open in another
case (Nos. 5577/72-5583/72, Donnelly and others v. the United Kingdom,
Dec. 5.4.73, Yearbook 16, p. 212), of whether it is precluded under
Article 27 para. 1 (b) (Art. 27-1-b) of the Convention from examining
in the context of an individual application a "matter" which has
already been examined in an inter-State case. Neither does it consider
it necessary to pronounce on the question of whether the mere passage
of time since its Report of 4 October 1983 in the third inter-State
case would in itself qualify, in the particular circumstances of the
case, as "relevant new information" for the purposes of Article 27
para. 1 (b) (Art. 27-1-b) of the Convention.

      The Commission recalls that in its Report of 10 July 1976 in
applications Nos. 6780/74 and 6950/75 Cyprus v. Turkey (the first and
second inter-State cases) it considered that the evidence before it did
not allow a definitive finding with regard to the fate of Greek
Cypriots declared to be missing. Although in its Report of
4 October 1983 in application No. 8007/77 Cyprus v. Turkey (the third
inter-State case) the Commission considered that it had found
sufficient indications, in an indefinite number of cases, that Greek
Cypriots who were still missing at the time had been unlawfully
deprived of their liberty, it cannot be established with any certainty
that this finding also concerned the cases of the first applicants in
the present applications. Finally, the Commission recalls that an
examination of the merits of application No. 25781/94 Cyprus v. Turkey
(the fourth inter-State case) still remains to be carried out. In these
circumstances, the Commission considers that the present individual
applications do not concern a "matter" which has "already been
examined" by the Commission in the context of one of the inter-State
cases. Having reached this finding the Commission considers it
unnecessary to address the Government's arguments - whatever their
relevance might be in an individual application - about the
res judicata effect of the Committee of Ministers' resolution in the
third inter-State case.

      As regards the Government's arguments concerning the Committee
on Missing Persons, the Commission has always considered that the
procedures envisaged by the second limb of Article 27 para. 1 (b)
(Art. 27-1-b) of the Convention are procedures in which a matter is
submitted by way of "a petition" lodged formally or substantively by
the applicant (see No. 16358/90, Dec. 12.10.92, unpublished, and, by
implication, No. 11603/85, Dec. 20.1.87, D.R. 50, p. 228, No. 17230/90,
Dec. 9.10.91, unpublished and No. 17512/90, Dec. 30.6.92 and 6.7.92,
unpublished). This is not, however, the case with the Committee on
Missing Persons (No. 25781/94 Cyprus v. Turkey, Dec. 28.6.96, supra).
Moreover, the Commission notes that Turkey is not a party to the
procedure before that Committee and that the Committee cannot attribute
responsibility for the deaths of any missing persons or make findings
as to their cause. Finally, the Commission notes that the Committee's
investigating capacity is limited. In these circumstances, the
Commission considers that the Committee is not "a procedure of
international investigation or settlement" of the "matter" which is
pending before the Commission in the present applications.

      As a result, the Commission considers that it cannot reject the
applications as inadmissible under Article 27 para. 1 (b)
(Art. 27-1-b) of the Convention on the ground that they concern a
matter which has already been examined by the Commission or has already
been submitted to a procedure of international investigation or
settlement.

5.    Finally, the Government argue that the applications are
manifestly ill-founded. According to the information given in the
application forms, the alleged "missing persons" were military
personnel who were lost in action. A number of experts who have
addressed the issues agree that there is no indication that any of "the
missing persons" is alive.

      The applicants argue that the expert opinions to which the
Government refer are not supported by any evidence. As a result, the
Government continue to bear the obligation to account for the fate of
the "missing persons".

      The Commission, in the light of the parties' observations,
considers that the application raises serious questions of fact and law
which are of such complexity that their determination should depend on
an examination of the merits. The application cannot, therefore, be
regarded as being manifestly ill-founded within the meaning of
Article 27 para. 2 (Art. 27-2) of the Convention, and no other ground
for declaring it inadmissible has been established.

      For these reasons, the Commission, by a majority,

      DECLARES THE APPLICATION ADMISSIBLE, without prejudging the
      merits of the case.

        M. de SALVIA                         S. TRECHSEL
         Secretary                             President
     to the Commission                    of the Commission