THIRD SECTION

CASE OF PAVLOVIČ v. SLOVENIA

(Application no. 20543/02)

JUDGMENT

STRASBOURG

13 April 2006

FINAL

13/07/2006

This judgment will become final in the circumstances set out in Article 44 § 2 of the Convention. It may be subject to editorial revision.

 

In the case of Pavlovič v. Slovenia,

The European Court of Human Rights (Third Section), sitting as a Chamber composed of:

Mr J. Hedigan, President
 Mr B.M. Zupančič
 Mrs M. Tsatsa-Nikolovska,

Mr V. Zagrebelsky
 Mr E. Myjer
 Mr David Thór Björgvinsson, 
 Mrs I. Ziemele, judges
and Mr V. Berger, Section Registrar
a     Having deliberated in private on 23 March 2006Note,

NoteDelivers the following judgment, which was adopted on that date:

PROCEDURE

1.  The case originated in an application (no. 20543/02) against the Republic of Slovenia lodged with the Court under Article 34 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (“the Convention”) by a Slovenian national, Mr Dujo Pavlovič (“the applicant”), on 27 May 2002.

2.  The applicant was represented by the Verstovšek lawyers. The Slovenian Government (“the Government”) were represented by their Agent, Mr L. Bembič, State Attorney-General.

3.  The applicant alleged under Article 6 § 1 of the Convention that the length of the proceedings before the domestic courts to which she was a party was excessive. In substance, she also complained about the lack of an effective domestic remedy in respect of the excessive length of the proceedings (Article 13 of the Convention).

4.  On 11 June 2004 the Court decided to communicate the complaints concerning the length of the proceedings and the lack of remedies in that respect to the Government. Applying Article 29 § 3 of the Convention, it decided to rule on the admissibility and merits of the application at the same time.

THE FACTS

5.  The applicant was born in 1962 and lives in Prebold.

6.  On 19 June 1995 the applicant was injured in an accident at work. The applicant’s employer had taken out insurance with the insurance company ZT.

7.  On 4 November 1996 the applicant instituted civil proceedings against ZT in the Celje District Court (Okrožno sodišče v Celju) seeking damages in the amount of 5,447,223 tolars (approximately 22,700 euros) for the injuries sustained.

On 6 December 1996 the presiding judge was appointed to the Higher Court (Višje sodišče v Celju) and the case was assigned to a new judge.

Between 11 September 1997 and 15 September 1998 the applicant made three requests that a date be set for a hearing.

On 8 June 1998 and 4 March 1999 he lodged preliminary written submissions and/or adduced evidence.

Of the three hearings held between 8 June 1998 and 12 April 1999 none was adjourned at the request of the applicant.

During the proceedings the court appointed a medical expert.

At the last hearing the court decided to deliver a written judgment. The judgment, upholding the applicant’s claim in part, was served on the applicant on 7 June 1999.

8.  On 21 June 1999 the applicant appealed to the Celje Higher Court (Višje sodišče v Celju). ZT cross-appealed.

On 5 April 2000 the court allowed in part the applicant’s appeal and remanded the case back to the first-instance court for re-examination.

The judgment was served on the applicant on 12 July 2000.

9.  On 19 July 2000 the applicant lodged an appeal on points of law with the Supreme Court (Vrhovno sodišče) and requested that one of the judges be recused. ZT cross-appealed.

On 12 January 2001 the request for recusal was rejected.

On 14 June 2001 the court allowed in part the ZT’s appeal, rejected the applicant’s appeal and upheld the second-instance court’s decision of remitting the case for re-examination before the first-instance court.

The judgment was served on the applicant on 29 August 2001.

10.  On 5 November 2001 the presiding first-instance court judge was appointed to the Celje Higher Court and the case was assigned to a new judge for re-examination.

Between 24 September 2001 and 18 November 2002 the applicant lodged three preliminary written submissions and adduced evidence.

On 25 October 2001 he made a request that a date be set for a hearing.

The court held hearings on 27 May and 18 November 2002.

During the proceedings the court appointed a medical expert.

At the last hearing the court decided to deliver a written judgment. The judgment, upholding in part the applicant’s claim, was served on the applicant on 12 March 2003.

11.  On 25 March 2003 the applicant appealed to the Celje Higher Court.

On 21 October 2004 the court allowed in part the appeal.

The judgment was served on the applicant on 13 January 2005.

THE LAW

I.  ALLEGED VIOLATION OF ARTICLES 6 § 1 AND 13 OF THE CONVENTION

12.  The applicant complained about the excessive length of the proceedings. She relied on Article 6 § 1 of the Convention, which reads as follows:

“In the determination of his civil rights and obligations ..., everyone is entitled to a ... hearing within a reasonable time by [a] ... tribunal...”

13.  In substance, the applicant further complained that the remedies available for excessive legal proceedings in Slovenia were ineffective. Article 13 of the Convention reads as follows:

“Everyone whose rights and freedoms as set forth in [the] Convention are violated shall have an effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity.”

A.  Admissibility

14.  The Government pleaded non-exhaustion of domestic remedies.

15.  The applicant contested that argument, claiming that the remedies available were not effective.

16.  The Court notes that the present application is similar to the cases of Belinger and Lukenda (Belinger v. Slovenia (dec.), no. 42320/98, 2 October 2001, and Lukenda v. Slovenia, no. 23032/02, 6 October 2005). In those cases the Court dismissed the Government’s objection of non-exhaustion of domestic remedies because it found that the legal remedies at the applicant’s disposal were ineffective. The Court recalls its findings in the Lukenda judgment that the violation of the right to a trial within a reasonable time is a systemic problem resulting from inadequate legislation and inefficiency in the administration of justice.

17.  As regards the instant case, the Court finds that the Government have not submitted any convincing arguments which would require the Court to distinguish it from its established case-law.

18.  The Court further notes that the application is not manifestly ill-founded within the meaning of Article 35 § 3 of the Convention. Nor is it inadmissible on any other grounds. It must therefore be declared admissible.

B.  Merits

1.  Article 6 § 1

19.  The period to be taken into consideration began on 4 November 1996, the day the applicant instituted proceedings with the Celje District Court, and ended on 13 January 2005, the day the Celje Higher Court judgment was served on the applicant. It therefore lasted over eight years and two months for five instances.

20.  The Court reiterates that the reasonableness of the length of proceedings must be assessed in the light of the circumstances of the case and with reference to the following criteria: the complexity of the case, the conduct of the applicant and the relevant authorities and what was at stake for the applicant in the dispute (see, among many other authorities, Frydlender v. France [GC], no. 30979/96, § 43, ECHR 2000-VII).

21.  Having examined all the material submitted to it, and having regard to its case-law on the subject, the Court considers that in the instant case the length of the proceedings was excessive and failed to meet the “reasonable-time” requirement.

There has accordingly been a breach of Article 6 § 1.

2.  Article 13

22.  The Court reiterates that Article 13 guarantees an effective remedy before a national authority for an alleged breach of the requirement under Article 6 § 1 to hear a case within a reasonable time (see Kudła v. Poland [GC], no. 30210/96, § 156, ECHR 2000-XI). It notes that the objections and arguments put forward by the Government have been rejected in earlier cases (see Lukenda, cited above) and sees no reason to reach a different conclusion in the present case.

23.  Accordingly, the Court considers that in the present case there has been a violation of Article 13 on account of the lack of a remedy under domestic law whereby the applicant could have obtained a ruling upholding her right to have her case heard within a reasonable time, as set forth in Article 6 § 1.

II.  APPLICATION OF ARTICLE 41 OF THE CONVENTION

24.  Article 41 of the Convention provides:

“If the Court finds that there has been a violation of the Convention or the Protocols thereto, and if the internal law of the High Contracting Party concerned allows only partial reparation to be made, the Court shall, if necessary, afford just satisfaction to the injured party.”

A.  Damage

25.  The applicant claimed 15,000 euros (EUR) in respect of non-pecuniary damage.

26.  The Government contested the claim.

27.  The Court considers that the applicant must have sustained non-pecuniary damage. Ruling on an equitable basis, it awards her EUR 1,200 under that head.

B.  Costs and expenses

28.  The applicant also claimed approximately EUR 1,780 for the costs and expenses incurred before the Court.

29.  The Government argued that the claim was too high.

30.  According to the Court’s case-law, an applicant is entitled to reimbursement of his costs and expenses only in so far as it has been shown that these have been actually and necessarily incurred and were reasonable as to quantum. The Court also notes that the applicant’s lawyers, who also represented the applicant in Lukenda (cited above), lodged nearly 400 applications which, apart from the facts, are essentially the same as this one. Accordingly, in the present case, regard being had to the information in its possession and the above criteria, the Court considers it reasonable to award the applicant the sum of EUR 1,000 for the proceedings before the Court.

C.  Default interest

31.  The Court considers it appropriate that the default interest should be based on the marginal lending rate of the European Central Bank, to which should be added three percentage points.

FOR THESE REASONS, THE COURT UNANIMOUSLY

1.  Declares the application admissible;

2.  Holds that there has been a violation of Article 6 § 1 of the Convention;

3.  Holds that there has been a violation of Article 13 of the Convention;

4.  Holds

(a)  that the respondent State is to pay the applicant, within three months from the date on which the judgment becomes final in accordance with Article 44 § 2 of the Convention, EUR 1,200 (one thousand two hundred euros) in respect of non-pecuniary damage and EUR 1,000 (one thousand euros) in respect of costs and expenses, plus any tax that may be chargeable;

(b)  that from the expiry of the above-mentioned three months until settlement simple interest shall be payable on the above amounts at a rate equal to the marginal lending rate of the European Central Bank during the default period plus three percentage points;

5.  Dismisses the remainder of the applicant’s claim for just satisfaction.

Done in English, and notified in writing on 13 April 2006, pursuant to Rule 77 §§ 2 and 3 of the Rules of Court.

Vincent Berger John Hedigan 
 Registrar President

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Indicate only the date(s) of the deliberations of the Chamber which actually adopts the judgment.


Indicate only the date(s) of the deliberations of the Chamber which actually adopts the judgment.



PAVLOVIČ v. SLOVENIA JUDGMENT


PAVLOVIČ v. SLOVENIA JUDGMENT